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M.sc 1st Semester - Zoology - Biogeochemical cycle ppt notes

 Biogeochemical cycle 

  • Introduction to biogeochemical cycle
  • The water cycle
  • The carbon cycle
  • The nitrogen cycle
  • The phosphorus cycle
  • Impacts of human activities on biogeochemical cycles
  • Conclusion and future implications

Biogeochemical Cycle

The biogeochemical cycle is a fundamental process that involves the
movement of nutrients between living organisms and their environment.
Join us on a journey through the cycles that sustain life on Earth.

The Water Cycle

Precipitation                                  Surface Runoff                           Groundwater Recharge

Water evaporates from                Excess water from rain or           Water percolates through
bodies of water, condenses        melting snow flows into             the soil and replenishes
as clouds, and eventually            rivers, lakes, and oceans,              underground water sources,
falls back to the earth as             replenishing the bodies of            such as aquifers, sustaining
rain, snow, or hail.                      water.                                            plants and animals.


Sunlight causes water to
evaporate from oceans,
lakes, and soil, turning liquid
water into water vapor.

The Carbon Cycle


Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into glucose through
the process of photosynthesis.


Animals and plants release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere as a byproduct of
cellular respiration.


When plants and animals die, their organic matter decomposes, releasing carbon
dioxide and returning nutrients to the soil.

The Nitrogen Cycle

 1.  Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form that plants can absorb.
2. Nitrification
 Other bacteria convert ammonia into nitrites and then nitrates, which are taken up by plants.
Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen, completing the cycle.

The Phosphorus Cycle

1   Weathering                                                           2   Uptake by Plants

    Over time, rocks containing phosphorus               Plants absorb phosphorus from the soil,
    break down, releasing phosphorus into                incorporating it into their tissues and
    the soil and water.                                                  transferring it through the food chain.

3   Decomposition                                                            4   Sedimentation

    When plants and animals decay,                               Over time, phosphorus can accumulate
    phosphorus is released back into the                         in sedimentary rocks, gradually
    soil, where it can be reused.                                        removing it from the active cycle.

Impacts of Human Activities on Biogeochemical Cycles

Deforestation                                     Fertilizer Use                                       Industrial Emissions
Clearing forests disrupts                    Excessive use of nitrogen-                   Burning fossil fuels
the carbon cycle, releasing                based fertilizers in                                 releases large amounts of
stored carbon dioxide and                  agriculture can lead to                          carbon dioxide into the
reducing the planet's                          water pollution through                         atmosphere, accelerating
capacity to absorb it.                          runoff and disrupt the                           climate change and the                                                                     nitrogen cycle.                                     carbon cycle.

Conclusion and Future Implications

Environmental                                     Sustainable Practices                       Global Collaboration
                                                             Transitioning to renewable              Addressing the challenges
Understanding and                              energy sources, reducing                  posed by climate change
preserving biogeochemical                  waste, and promoting                      requires international
cycles is crucial for                              sustainable agriculture are               cooperation and collective
maintaining a healthy planet                key steps towards a                           action.
and sustaining future                            balanced future.

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